COCAINE

What is Cocaine?

Cocaine or the common name known in the market is called coke, is a stimulant drug that speeds up the messages travelling between the brain and the rest of the body.

Cocaine generally comes from the leaves of the coca bush [Erythroxylum coca], which is located from the native South America. The leaf extract is processes used to produce 3 different forms cocaine that is known as;

  • Cocaine hydrochloride:  a white, crystalline powder with a bitter, numbing taste. Cocaine hydrochloride is often mixed, or ‘cut’, with other substances such as lactose and glucose, to dilute it before being sold.
  • Freebase: a white powder that is more pure with less impurity than cocaine hydrochloride.
  • Crack: crystals ranging in colour from white or cream to transparent with a pink or yellow hue, it may contain impurities.

How it is normally used?

Cocaine hydrochloride is commonly be used as snorted, where some individual will inject, rubbed into their gums or even added to drinks or food.

Freebase and crack cocaine are usually smoked.

Indigenous people of South America have traditionally chewed the coca bush, or brewed them as a tea, for use as a stimulant or appetite suppressant.

Effects of cocaine 

Cocaine may affect everyone in different levels, but the common effects of cocaine included;

  • Size, weight and health
  • Whether the person is used to taking it
  • Whether other drugs are taken at the same time
  • The amount of cocaine are taken
  • The strength of the drug [varies from batch to batch]

What you may experience 

  • Happiness and confidence
  • Talking more than usual
  • Feeling energetic and alert
  • Quiet contemplation and rapture
  • Feeling physically strong and mentally sharp
  • Reduced appetite
  • Dry mouth and enlarged [dilated] pupils
  • Higher blood pressures, faster heartbeat and breathing [after initial slowing]
  • Higher body temperature and increased sex drive
  • Unpredictable, violent or aggressive behaviour
  • Indifference to pain or numbness

Long-term effects 

Regular used or consuming to cocaine may eventually cause an individual to;

  • Insomnia and exhaustion
  • Depression
  • Anxiety, paranoia and psychosis
  • Eating disorders and weight loss
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Hypertension and irregular heartbeat
  • Sensitivity to light and sound
  • Hallucination
  • Heart disease and death

While regular snorting could lead or may cause an individual to;

  • A runny nose or nosebleed
  • Nose infection
  • A hole in the tissue separating the nostrils
  • Long-term damage to the nasal cavity and sinuses

High doses and frequent heavy usage of can also cause an individual to neurone cognition behaviourism attribute called “cocaine psychosis”, that are characterised by paranoid delusions, hallucinations and out of character aggressive behaviour. However, these symptoms will disappear a few day later after an individual stop using cocaine.

Singapore tough measures on illicit drugs/substances

Cocaine is categorised as a controlled drug substances under Singapore Misuse Drug Act, whereby any Singaporean or Permanent Resident are found to have consumed to any drug-related illicit activity even outside of Singapore are subject to the penalty of 10 years imprisonment, fines not exceeding to $20,000, or both.

The penalty for any drug-related criminal offences

Possession or consumption of Cocaine;

  • Up to 10 years of imprisonment or $20,000 fines or BOTH.

Illegal traffic, import or export of Cocaine not more than 30 grams;

  • The penalty will be convicted under the Capital Punishment of the death penalty.
REFERENCES

Australia Drug Foundation, preventing harm in Australia, drugs facts and resources about drugs and alcohol.Last updated: May 25, 2017

Central Narcotic Bureau (CNB), controlled substances in Singapore, drugs and inhalant, last updated website on Friday, 16 September 2016.

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CRYSTAL METHAMPHETAMINE (ICE)

What is ICE?

Crystal methamphetamine or more common name use ICE is a stimulant drug, which means it helps to speeds up any receives messages through the brains and the body. It’s stronger, more addictive and therefore has more harmful side effects than the powder methamphetamine known as speed.

The packaging of ICE generally will come in small chunky clear crystals form that will resemble the looks like iced. It could also come as white or brownish crystal-like powder with a strong smell and bitter taste.

How is it used?

Ice or meth is generally smoked or injected where the effects could be felt in 3 to 7 seconds. Where some user will consume by swallowed where the effects will take about 15 to 30 mins for the effects to be felt or through snorted where the effects will take about 3 to 5 mins to feel the effects.

Effects of Ice

The effects of consuming ice may last around 6 hours, generally, it will deprive an individual of sleep for a few days, whereby ice consuming may affect everyone differently but the common effects of ice may include of;

  • Feelings of pleasure and confidence
  • Increased of alertness and energy
  • Repeating simple things like itching and scratching
  • Enlarged pupils and dry mouth
  • Teeth grinding and excessive sweating
  • Fast heart rate and breathing
  • Reduce appetite and increased sex drive

Injecting ice and sharing needles can increase the risk to be infected with;

  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis A
  • HIV and AIDS

Snorting ice can damage the nasal passage and cause nose bleeds.

Long-term effects of ice

With regular use, ice may eventually lead you to;

  • Extreme weight loss due to reducing appetite
  • Restless sleep
  • Dry mouth and dental problems
  • Regular cold or flu
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Breathlessness and Muscles stiffness
  • Anxiety, paranoia and violence
  • Depression
  • Heart and kidney problems
  • Increased risk of stroke
  • Needing to use more to get the same effects
  • Dependence on ICE
  • Financial, work and social problems

ICE psychosis

High doses of consuming ice or frequently depending on ice may lead an individual to a neurone cognitive behaviourism called “ice psychosis”. This condition is characterised to be recognised as paranoia, delusions, hallucination and bizarre, aggressive and violent behaviour. Whereby, these neurone cognitive behaviourism symptoms will normally disappear a few days after the person stop using ice.

Mixing ice with other drugs

The effects of taking or consuming ice with other drugs – including over-the-counter or prescribed medications – can be unpredictable and dangerous, i.g. drug mixing effects;

  • Ice + speed or ecstasy: enormous strain on the heart and other parts of the body, which can lead to stroke.
  • Ice + alcohol, cannabis or benzodiazepines: enormous strain on the body, and more likely to overdose. The stimulant effects of ice may mask the effects of depressant drugs like benzodiazepines and can increase the risk of overdose.

Singapore tough measure on illicit drugs/substances

Ice or methamphetamine is a controlled drug substances categories under Singapore Misuse Drug Act which classified methamphetamine to be listed under the fourth schedule of Misuse of Drug Act (MDA), which empowers the discretion to entailed the Director of CNB (Central Narcotics Bureau) to arbitrary an individual or suspected drug (ab)users to be treated and placed in a drug rehabilitation for 6 or 36 months or may subjected to longer terms of an imprisonment regime for a person who posted a recalcitrant attitude.

The penalty for drug criminal offences in Singapore

Possession or consumption of methamphetamine;

  • Up to 10 years of imprisonment, or $20,000 fine or BOTH.

Manufacture of methamphetamine or any salt of methamphetamine upon conviction is death. Illegal traffic, import or export of;

  • Methamphetamine of more than 250 grams > are subjected to faces the death penalty.
  • Methamphetamine of not less than 167 grams and not more than 250 grams > are subjected to 30 years of imprisonment or imprisonment for life and 15 strokes of the cane.
REFERENCES

Australia Drug Foundation, preventing harm in Australia, drugs facts and resources about drugs and alcohol.Last updated: May 25, 2017

Central Narcotic Bureau (CNB), controlled substances in Singapore, drugs and inhalant, last updated website on Friday, 16 September 2016.

 

CANNABIS

What is cannabis?

Cannabis is a drug depressant drug, which means it slow down message travelling between your body and brain. When a large dose of cannabis is taken, it will also produce hallucinogenic effects. The main active chemical in cannabis is  THC ( Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol.

Marijuana, yarndi. pot, weed, hash, dope, gujan, stick, joint, chronic (synthetic form), cone, choof, dabs, dabbing, BHO.

Also known in local terms_

Marijuana, pot, grass, joints, hashish and weed.

How it’s used?

Cannabis is usually smoked or eaten and comes in different form;

  • Marijuana – the dried plant that is smoked in a joint or a bong. This is the most common form
  • Hashish – the dried plant resin that is usually mixed with tobacco, and smoked or added to food and baked; such as cookies and brownies.
  • Hash Oil – liquid that is usually added to the tip of a cigarette and smoked

It takes about an hour to feel the effects of eating cannabis, which means it’s easy to have too much. If it’s smoked the effects usually felt straight away. However, smoking can cause a number of negative side-effects, especially in a long run.

Synthetic Cannabis -Cannabis can also come in synthetic form, which may be more harmful than real cannabis.

Butane hash oil and hash oil – may also be refined into what are known as Dabs or Dabbing, slang names for concentrated butane hash oil (or BHO), a relatively a new administering/ ingesting cannabis that involves inhalation of highly concentrated THC.

Effects of cannabis

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful any type of drug.

Cannabis affects everyone differently, based on;

  • Size, weight and health
  • Whether the person is used taking it
  • Whether other drugs are taken at the same time
  • The amount was taken and the strength of the drug

The effects of cannabis may be felt immediately if smoked or within an hour or two if eaten and effects may be included;

  • Feeling relaxed and sleepy
  • Spontaneous laughter and excitement
  • Increased appetite, Dry Mouth and Quite&Reflective Mood

If large amount or a strong batch are taken, individual may also experience;

  • Trouble concentrating and Blurred vision
  • Clumsiness and Slower reflexes
  • Bloodshots and Seeing or Hearing things that aren’t there
  • Increase heart rate, Low blood pressure, Mixed anxiety and paranoia

Long-term effects

Regular use of cannabis may eventually cause:

  • Memory loss, Learning difficulties, Mood swings
  • Regular colds or flu, Reduced sex drive
  • Difficulty having children (low fertility in males and females)
  • Needing to use more to get the same effect
  • Dependence on cannabis
  • Financial, work and social problem

Smoking cannabis can also cause;

  • Sore throat
  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Cancer (if smoked with tobacco)

Those with a family history of mental illness are more likely to also experience anxiety, depression and psychotic symptoms after using cannabis. Psychotic symptoms include delusions, hallucinations and seeing or hearing things that do not exist or are distorted.

Cannabis and mental health

Using cannabis with other drugs

The effects of taking cannabis with other drugs − including over-the-counter or prescribed medications − can be unpredictable and dangerous.

Cannabis + alcohol: nausea, vomiting, panic, anxiety and paranoia.

Cannabis is sometimes used to help with the ‘come down’ effects of stimulant drugs, such as ice, speed and ecstasy. However, doing this can cause reduced motivation, poor memory,  mental health problems and dependence on both drugs.

Withdrawal

Giving up cannabis after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. Withdrawal symptoms may last for only a week, but sleep may be affected for longer. Symptoms include:

  • Anxiety, Irritability
  • Aggressive and angry behaviour
  • Cravings for cannabis
  • Loss of appetite and upset stomach
  • Sweating, chills and tremors
  • Restless sleep and nightmares

Information on withdrawal

Medicinal Cannabis 

Broadly speaking, medicinal cannabis is cannabis prescribed to relieve the symptoms of a medical condition, such as epilepsy. It is important to make the distinction between medicinal cannabis and recreational cannabis. Recreational cannabis is the form of cannabis that people use to get ‘high’. Recently legislation has been passed in Australia to facilitate access to medicinal cannabis for certain medical conditions.

Singapore views on Cannabis

Take a look at the drug criminal penalty

Cannabis is classified as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drug Act in Singapore. Possession or consumption of cannabis;

  • Up to ten years of imprisonment or s$20,000 fine or Both

Illegal traffic, import or export of cannabis;

  • Cannabis of more than 500 grammes > May face the death penalty
  • Cannabis resin of more than 200 grammes > May face the death penalty
  • Cannabis mixture of more than 1,000 grammes > May face the death penalty
REFERENCES
Click to see more on cannabis

Click to view on Singapore drug-related information